Training organizations are under continuous pressure to transform, optimize and modernize training to meet increasing demands with limited resources, while preserving training effectiveness. In other words, continually improve training efficiency. To achieve this goal, most have focused on training technology innovations – i.e., use synchronous or asynchronous learning in lieu of instructor-led for academic topics as means of reducing travel and instructors costs; desktop, part-task, full-task, or full-mission simulators to practice skills while reducing the wear and tear on expensive equipment; gaming, augmented and virtual reality for team building exercises and so forth. Although training technology is and will continue to be a key part of the training solution; critical and more fundamental issues that significantly impact training efficiency – such as training duplication, gaps and overtraining – are being overlooked. The aim of this paper is to highlight how these issues can be uncovered, as well as how to resolve and avoid them. To download, please click on the following link.